How to cite

You need to cite sources in your papers to avoid plagiarism and allow readers to track down the source content. But how should you format the citations and bibliography?

There are several citation styles to choose from, and some are for specific subjects or publications. Check with your instructor or publisher for the preferred style.

Use the guides below to see citation rules and examples. Or collect your references in one of our citation management tools that formats citations for you. 

General citation guides

American Psychological Association guide (used in the social sciences)

  •  (Purdue University)
  • (Penn State University)

Chicago guide (used in history and some social sciences)

  • (requires NetID/password)
    (requires NetID/password)

007真人网址Modern Language Association guide (used in the humanities)

  •  (Purdue University)

Subject-specific citation guides

Biology

  • (Penn State)

Chemistry

  •  (requires NetID/password)

Engineering

  • (University of Pittsburgh)
  • (IEEE Standards Association)

Government Documents

  • Citing (Cornell University)

Journalism

  • (ebook requires NetID/password)

Law

  •  (Cornell University)

Medicine

  • (Oakland University)

Sociology

  •  (Purdue OWL)